London is the capital and largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea. London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London’s ancient core and financial centre − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that closely follow its medieval limits.[note 1] The adjacent City of Westminster is an Inner London borough and has for centuries been the location of much of the national government. Thirty one additional boroughs north and south of the river also comprise modern London. London is governed by the mayor of London and the London Assembly.[note 2]
London is one of the world’s most important global cities. It exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism and transportation. It is one of the largest financial centres. In 2019, London had the highest number of ultra high-net-worth individuals in Europe. London’s universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe, and London is home to highly ranked institutions such as Imperial College London in natural and applied sciences, and the London School of Economics in social sciences. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games.
London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region. Its estimated mid-2018 municipal population (corresponding to Greater London) was 8,908,081, the third-most populous of any city in Europe and accounts for 13.4% of the UK population. London’s urban area is the third most populous in Europe, after Moscow and Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The London commuter belt is the second-most populous in Europe, after the Moscow Metropolitan Area, with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016.[note 3]
London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London; Kew Gardens; the site comprising the Palace of Westminster, Westminster Abbey, and St Margaret’s Church; and the historic settlement in Greenwich where the Royal Observatory, Greenwich defines the Prime Meridian (0° longitude) and Greenwich Mean Time. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul’s Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries, libraries and sporting events. These include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world.
The Docklands Light Railway (DLR) is an automated light metro system serving the redeveloped Docklands area of London, England. First opened on 31 August 1987, the DLR has been extended multiple times, and now reaches north to Stratford, south to Lewisham, west to Tower Gateway and Bank in the City of London financial district, and east to Beckton, London City Airport and Woolwich Arsenal. Further extensions are under consideration.
Normal operations are automated, so there is minimal staffing on the 149 trains (which have no cabs) and at major interchange stations; the four below-ground stations are staffed, to comply with underground station health and safety regulations.
The DLR is owned by Docklands Light Railway Ltd, part of the London Rail division of Transport for London (TfL). It is operated under a franchise awarded by TfL to KeolisAmey Docklands, a joint venture between transport operator Keolis and infrastructure specialists Amey plc, having been run previously (1997-2014) by Serco Docklands.
Passenger numbers have greatly increased as the network has expanded, and in the financial year 2019/20 there were 116.8 million passenger journeys.
Origins and development
Tower Gateway DLR station was the DLR’s original link to central London.
The docks immediately east of Central London began to decline in the early 1960s as cargo became containerised. They had been connected to the national railway network via the London and Blackwall Railway (L&BR), which was closed in 1966 for lack of traffic. The opening of the Tilbury container docks, further east in Essex, finally rendered them redundant, and in 1980 the government gained control of the now-derelict area.
As early as 1972, consideration was given to how to redevelop the moribund Docklands. Travis Morgan & Partners were commissioned by the London Docklands Study Team to consider the issue. They proposed, among other recommendations, that a "minitram" people-mover system capable of carrying up to 20 people in each unit should be constructed to connect the Docklands with the planned Fleet line tube railway terminus at Fenchurch Street railway station. The Greater London Council formed a Docklands Joint Committee with the Boroughs of Greenwich, Lewisham, Newham, Southwark and Tower Hamlets in 1974 to undertake the redevelopment of the area. A light railway system was envisaged, terminating either at Tower Hill tube station or at nearby Fenchurch Street, but both options were seen as too expensive. Nonetheless, in 1976 another report proposed a conventional tube railway for the area and London Transport obtained Parliamentary powers to build a line from Charing Cross station to Fenchurch Street, Surrey Docks (now Surrey Quays railway station), the Isle of Dogs, North Greenwich and Custom House to Woolwich Arsenal. This was intended to be the second stage of the Fleet line – which had been renamed the Jubilee line, the first stage of which opened in 1979 from Stanmore to Charing Cross. However, when the Thatcher Government came to power, the plans to extend the Jubilee line were halted and the new government insisted that a lower-cost option should be pursued.
The government established the London Docklands Development Corporation (LDDC) in July 1981 to coordinate the redevelopment of the Docklands. The need to provide a cheap public transport solution led to it commissioning London Transport to evaluate a number of exclusively light rail options. The core of the route ran alongside the Great Eastern line out of London and south along the former London & Blackwall Railway line through the Isle of Dogs. Three terminus options were proposed at the west end, at Tower Hill, Minories and Aldgate East. The Tower Hill option would have required a low-level interchange to be constructed alongside the existing Underground station, but this would have been a very costly venture. The Minories option, a high-level station virtually on the site of the old Minories railway station, was selected and became the current Tower Gateway DLR terminus. Aldgate East would have been perhaps the most ambitious of all of the options, as it originally envisaged a low-level connection with the District line that would have allowed DLR trains to run on London Underground tracks to a variety of central London destinations. However, it quickly became apparent that there was no capacity on the existing network for integrating the DLR into the Underground.
Two southern terminus options were put forward, at Cubitt Town (today’s Island Gardens station) and Tiller Road, on the west side of Millwall Dock, with two possible routes to reach them. A "western" route would have run from the Westferry station alongside West Ferry Road via Cuba Street, then either terminating at Tiller Road or continuing over Millwall Docks Cut to a terminus at Cubitt Town. The "central" option required the West India Docks to be infilled or bridged and would run down the middle of the peninsula, through what was at the time an area of derelict warehouses. Ultimately this latter option was chosen, though the 1981 London Transport report warned that without extensive development around Canary Wharf the area would be "very isolated with poor traffic prospects" – as indeed it was, for a number of years.
The contract for the initial system was awarded to a GEC / John Mowlem joint venture in 1984 and the system was constructed from 1985 to 1987 at a cost of £77 million. The line was formally opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 30 July 1987, and passenger services began on 31 August.
Initial system (1987–1990)
A first generation DLR train crosses West India Dock in September 1987
The initial system comprised two routes, from Tower Gateway and Stratford to Island Gardens. It was mainly elevated on disused railway viaducts or new concrete viaducts, and adopted disused surface railway formations between Poplar and Stratford. The trains were fully automated, controlled by computer, and had no driver; a Passenger Service Agent (PSA) on each train, originally referred to as a "Train Captain", was responsible for patrolling the train, checking tickets, making announcements and controlling the doors. PSAs could take control of the train in circumstances including equipment failure and emergencies. A total of eleven units supplied by Linke-Hofmann-Busch comprised the first generation of the Docklands Light Railway rolling stock.
The system was lightweight, with stations designed for trains of only a single articulated vehicle. The three branches totalled 13 kilometres (8 mi), had 15 stations, and were connected by a flat triangular junction near Poplar. Services ran from Tower Gateway to Island Gardens and from Stratford to Island Gardens; the north side of the junction was used only for access to the depot at Poplar. The stations were mostly of a common design and constructed from standard components. A common feature was a short half-cylindrical glazed blue canopy. All stations were above ground and were generally unstaffed.
Extensions to the City and the Royal Docks (1991–1994)
The view from Tower Gateway looking east prior to rebuilding shows Fenchurch Street approach tracks to the left and the DLR line in the centre. Just visible in the distance is a DLR train that has emerged from the tunnel to Bank to the right.
The initial system had a relatively low capacity, but the Docklands area very quickly developed into a major financial centre and employment zone, increasing traffic. In particular Tower Gateway, at the edge of the City of London, attracted criticism for its poor connections, as it did not connect directly with the nearby Tower Hill tube station or Fenchurch Street railway station. The criticism arose partly because the system usage was higher than expected. Plans were developed, before the system opened, to extend it to Bank in the west and Beckton in the east. Stations and trains were extended to two-unit length, and the system was expanded into the heart of the City of London to Bank through a tunnel, which opened in 1991. This extension left Tower Gateway on a stub. The original trains were not suitable for underground usage due to not meeting the fire safety laws for underground trains. They were operated for a time on the above-ground sections only, and were later sold.
As the Canary Wharf office complex grew, Canary Wharf DLR station was redeveloped from a small wayside station to a large one with six platforms serving three tracks and a large overall roof, fully integrated into the malls below the office towers.
The east of Docklands needed better transport connections to encourage development, and a fourth branch, towards Beckton, was planned, with several route options available. A route from Poplar via Canning Town and the north side of the Royal Docks complex was chosen, and opened in 1994. Initially it was thought the line was likely to be underutilised, due to the sparse development in the area. As part of this extension, one side of the original flat triangular junction was replaced by a grade-separated junction west of Poplar. Poplar was rebuilt to give cross-platform interchange between the Stratford and Beckton lines, with a new grade-separated junction built east of the station at the divergence of the Stratford and Beckton lines.
Extension to Greenwich & Lewisham (1996–1999)
Early on, Lewisham London Borough Council commissioned a feasibility study into extending the system under the River Thames. This led the council to advocate an extension via Greenwich and Deptford, terminating at Lewisham railway station. The ambitions of the operators were supported by politicians in Parliament, including the future Labour Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott, and Lord Whitty; and by 1996 construction work had begun.
The Lewisham extension opened on 20 November 1999. It left the Island Gardens route south of the Crossharbour turn-back sidings, and dropped gently to Mudchute, where a street-level station replaced the high-level one on the former London & Blackwall Railway viaduct. The line then entered a tunnel, following the route of the viaduct to a shallow subsurface station at Island Gardens, accessible by stairs or a lift. It crossed under the Thames to Cutty Sark in the centre of Greenwich, and surfaced at Greenwich railway station, with cross-platform interchange between the northbound track and the London-bound main line. The line snaked on a concrete viaduct to Deptford Bridge, before descending to Elverson Road at street level, close to Lewisham town centre, terminating in two platforms between and below the main-line platforms at Lewisham railway station, with buses stopping outside the station. The extension quickly proved profitable.
Extensions to London City Airport & Woolwich (2004–2009)
Route of Woolwich Arsenal extension.
The next developments were aided by a five-year programme of investment for public transport across London that was unveiled by Mayor of London Ken Livingstone on 12 October 2004. On 2 December 2005, an eastward branch along the approximate route of the former Eastern Counties and Thames Junction Railway on the southern side of the Royal Docks complex opened from Canning Town to King George V via London City Airport.
A further extension from King George V to Woolwich Arsenal opened on 10 January 2009, providing interchange with the North Kent main line, close to the planned future stop on the Crossrail line to Abbey Wood via West India and Royal Docks, met by Private Finance Initiative funding. Construction began in June 2005, the same month that the contracts were finalised, and the tunnels were completed on 23 July 2007, and formally opened by Boris Johnson, Mayor of London on 12 January 2009. Following completion, the project was shortlisted for the 2009 Prime Minister’s Better Public Building Award.
The original Tower Gateway station was closed in mid-2008 for complete reconstruction. The two terminal tracks either side of a narrow island platform were replaced by a single track between two platforms, one for arriving passengers and the other for departing (Spanish solution). It reopened on 2 March 2009.
As part of an upgrade to allow three-car trains, strengthening work was necessary at the Delta Junction north of West India Quay. It was decided to include this in a plan for further grade separation to eliminate the conflict between services to Stratford and from Bank. A new timetable was introduced, with improved frequencies at peak hours. The new grade-separated route from Bank to Canary Wharf is used throughout the day, bypassing West India Quay station until mid-evening. Work on this project proceeded concurrently with the three-car upgrade work and the ‘diveunder’ (sometimes referred to as a flyunder but DLR have coined the term in this instance ‘diveunder’), and the improved timetable came into use on 24 August 2009.
Upgrade to three-car trains (2007-2011)
With the development of the eastern Docklands as part of the Thames Gateway initiative and London’s staging of the 2012 Summer Olympics, several extensions and enhancements were undertaken.
Capacity was increased by upgrading for trains with three cars, each with four doors per side. The alternative of more frequent trains was rejected as the signalling changes needed would have cost no less than upgrading to longer trains and with fewer benefits. The railway had been built for single-car operation, and the upgrade required both strengthening viaducts to take heavier trains and lengthening many platforms. The extra capacity was useful for the 2012 Summer Olympics, which increased the use of London’s transport network. The main contractor for the expansion and alteration works was Taylor Woodrow.
Elverson Road, Royal Albert, Gallions Reach and Cutty Sark have not been extended for three-car trains; such extension may be impossible in some cases. Selective door operation is used, with emergency walkways in case a door fails to remain shut. Cutty Sark station is underground, and both costs and the risk to nearby historic buildings prevent platform extension. The tunnel has an emergency walkway. Additional work beyond that needed to take the three-car trains was also carried out at some stations. This included replacing canopies with more substantial ones along the full platform length. A new South Quay station has been built 200 metres (660 ft) east of the former location as nearby curves precluded lengthening. Mudchute now has a third platform.
For this upgrade DLR purchased an additional 31 cars compatible with existing rolling stock. The works were originally planned as three phases: Bank-Lewisham, Poplar-Stratford, and the Beckton branch. The original £200m contract was awarded on 3 May 2007. Work started in 2007 and Bank-Lewisham was originally due to be completed in 2009. However, the work programme for the first two phases was merged and the infrastructure work was completed by the end of January 2010. The Lewisham-Bank route now runs three-car trains exclusively. They started running on the Beckton branch on 9 May 2011. Stratford to Lewisham and Bank to Woolwich Arsenal services sometimes operate as three-car trains; other routes run the longer trains when required.
Extension to Stratford International (2011)
The Stratford International DLR forecourt, soon after opening in 2011
In addition to the three-car station extensions, partly funded from the 2012 Olympics budget, a line was opened from Canning Town to Stratford and Stratford International railway station along the former North London Line of the national railway system, with additional stations. It parallels the London Underground Jubilee line for much of its length.
Abbey Road under construction in April 2010.
The extension to Stratford International, taking over the North London Line from Canning Town to Stratford, links the Docklands area with domestic high-speed services on High Speed 1. It was an important part of transport improvements for the 2012 Olympic Games, much of which were held on a site adjoining Stratford International.
The first contract for construction work was awarded on 10 January 2007 and construction started in mid-2007. Originally scheduled to open in mid-2010, the line opened on 31 August 2011. On 11 November 2015 the Mayor of London announced that all stations on this line would be rezoned from zone 3 to zone 2/3.
New stations were (names in bold are former North London Line stations): Canning Town, Star Lane, West Ham, Abbey Road, Stratford High Street (on the site of Stratford Market railway station), Stratford and Stratford International.
From Canning Town to Stratford the extension runs parallel to the Jubilee line of the London Underground. As well as providing interchange with the adjacent Jubilee line stations, there are additional DLR stations at Star Lane, Abbey Road and Stratford High Street.
At Stratford new platforms have been built for the North London Line at the northern end of the station. The old platforms (formerly 1 and 2) adjacent to the Jubilee line were rebuilt for the DLR, renumbered 16 (towards Stratford International) and 17 (towards Beckton/Woolwich Arsenal). Interchange between the Stratford International branch and DLR trains via Poplar is possible although the platforms are widely separated and at different levels. There is no physical connection between the two branches.
The resited Pudding Mill Lane station features new, wider platforms
Relocation of Pudding Mill Lane station (2014)
One of the tunnel portals for Crossrail is on the original site of Pudding Mill Lane station. As a consequence, work was carried out to divert the DLR between City Mill River and the River Lea onto a new viaduct further south. This included a replacement station, which opened on 28 April 2014. The former station stood on the only significant section of single track on the system, between Bow Church and Stratford, though the opportunity was taken to double the track in three stages, to improve capacity. There was originally no provision for works beyond the realigned section in the Crossrail Act.
The DLR has 38 kilometres (24 mi) of tracks, with 45 stations. There are six branches: to Lewisham in the south, Stratford and Stratford International in the north, Beckton and Woolwich Arsenal in the east, and Central London in the west, splitting to Bank and Tower Gateway.
The London, Tilbury and Southend line (foreground), operated by c2c, runs alongside the DLR (behind the fence) from Limehouse to Tower Gateway.
The northern, southern and south-eastern branches terminate at the National Rail stations at Stratford, Stratford International, Lewisham and Woolwich Arsenal. Other interchanges with National Rail are at Limehouse, Greenwich and West Ham, while out of station interchanges for Oyster card holders exist between Shadwell DLR station and London Overground’s station of the same name, and between Fenchurch Street and the DLR’s western termini Tower Gateway and Bank.
Between Limehouse and Tower Gateway, the DLR runs parallel to the London, Tilbury and Southend line.
Docklands Light Railway.svg
Although the layout allows many different routes, the following are operated in normal service:
Bank – Lewisham15Shadwell, Limehouse, Westferry, West India Quay (Bank-bound only), Canary Wharf, Heron Quays, South Quay, Crossharbour, Mudchute, Island Gardens, Cutty Sark, Greenwich, Deptford Bridge, Elverson Road
Bank – Woolwich Arsenal7.5Shadwell, Limehouse, Westferry, Poplar, Blackwall, East India, Canning Town, West Silvertown, Pontoon Dock, London City Airport, King George V
Tower Gateway – Beckton7.5Shadwell, Limehouse, Westferry, Poplar, Blackwall, East India, Canning Town, Royal Victoria, Custom House, Prince Regent, Royal Albert, Beckton Park, Cyprus, Gallions Reach
Stratford – Lewisham or Canary Wharf15Pudding Mill Lane, Bow Church, Devons Road, Langdon Park, All Saints, Poplar, West India Quay
7.5tph extended beyond/towards Canary Wharf calling at Heron Quays, South Quay, Crossharbour, Mudchute, Island Gardens, Cutty Sark, Greenwich, Deptford Bridge, Elverson Road
Stratford International – Woolwich Arsenal7.5Stratford, Stratford High Street, Abbey Road, West Ham, Star Lane, Canning Town, West Silvertown, Pontoon Dock, London City Airport, King George V
Bank – Lewisham12Shadwell, Limehouse, Westferry, West India Quay (Bank-bound only), Canary Wharf, Heron Quays, South Quay, Crossharbour, Mudchute, Island Gardens, Cutty Sark, Greenwich, Deptford Bridge, Elverson Road
Bank – Woolwich Arsenal6Shadwell, Limehouse, Westferry, Poplar, Blackwall, East India, Canning Town, West Silvertown, Pontoon Dock, London City Airport, King George V
Tower Gateway – Beckton6Shadwell, Limehouse, Westferry, Poplar, Blackwall, East India, Canning Town, Royal Victoria, Custom House, Prince Regent, Royal Albert, Beckton Park, Cyprus, Gallions Reach
Canning Town – Beckton Inter-peak only.6Royal Victoria, Custom House, Prince Regent, Royal Albert, Beckton Park, Cyprus, Gallions Reach
Stratford – Canary Wharf6Pudding Mill Lane, Bow Church, Devons Road, Langdon Park, All Saints, Poplar, West India Quay
Stratford International – Woolwich Arsenal6Stratford, Stratford High Street, Abbey Road, West Ham, Star Lane, Canning Town, West Silvertown, Pontoon Dock, London City Airport, King George V
There is capability for an additional shuttle from Canning Town to Prince Regent when exhibitions are in progress at the ExCeL exhibition centre.
At terminal stations trains reverse direction in the platforms, except at Bank where there is a reversing headshunt in the tunnel beyond the station. Many peak-hour trains on the Lewisham route from Stratford turn back at Canary Wharf. During service disruption or planned engineering work, trains can also turn back at Crossharbour and Mudchute. Trains serve every station on the route, but trains from Bank to Lewisham do not call at West India Quay because they are routed along the diveunder track to avoid junction conflicts. During long-term works for extension projects, other routes may be operated at weekends, such as Beckton to Lewisham if the Bank branch is closed.
An eastbound train leaving Westferry Station.
Main article: List of Docklands Light Railway stations
Most stations are elevated, with others at street level, in cutting or underground. Access to the platforms is mostly by staircase and lift, with escalators at some stations. From the outset the system has been fully accessible to wheelchairs; much attention was paid to quick and effective accessibility for all passengers. The stations have high platforms matching the floor height of the cars, allowing level access for passengers with wheelchairs or pushchairs.
Most stations are of a modular design dating back to the initial system, extended and improved with two side platforms, each with separate access from the street, and platform canopies, although few examples remain of the original, distinctive rounded roof design. Stations are unstaffed, except the underground stations at Bank, Stratford International and Woolwich Arsenal for safety reasons, a few of the busier interchange stations, and City Airport, which has a ticket office for passengers unfamiliar with the system. Canning Town, Custom House and Prince Regent are normally staffed on the platform whenever there is a significant exhibition at the ExCeL exhibition centre.
On 3 July 2007, DLR officially launched an art programme called DLR Art, similar to that on the London Underground, Art on the Underground. Alan Williams was appointed to produce the first temporary commission, called "Sidetrack", which portrays the ordinary and extraordinary sights, often unfamiliar to passengers, on the system and was displayed throughout the network.
Fares and ticketing
A train awaits departure from Woolwich Arsenal.
The system is part of the London fare zone system, and Travelcards that cover the appropriate zones are valid. There are one-day and season DLR-only "Rover" tickets, plus a one-day DLR "Rail and River Rover" ticket for the DLR and City Cruises river boats. Oyster pay-as-you-go is also available; or NFC enabled bank card holders (contactless) passengers need to touch both in and out on the platform readers or pass through the automatic gates. Tickets can be purchased from ticket machines at the entrance to the platforms, and are required before entering the platform. There are no ticket barriers at DLR-only stations, and correct ticketing is enforced by random on-train inspections by the PSA. Users of pay-as-you-go Oyster cards or a contactless bank card who have failed to touch in at the start of the journey, as well as other passengers without a correct ticket, may be liable to a £80 penalty fare or prosecution for fare evasion. There are barriers at Bank, Canning Town, Woolwich Arsenal, West Ham and Stratford, where the DLR platforms are within a London Underground or National Rail barrier line.
B2007 rolling stock at Poplar DLR station
Main article: Docklands Light Railway rolling stock
The DLR is operated by 149 high-floor bi-directional single-articulated Electric Multiple Units (EMUs). Each car has four doors on each side, and two or three cars make up a train. There are no cabs because normal operations are automated, and a small driver’s console is concealed behind a locked panel at each end, from which the PSA can drive the car. Consoles at each door opening allow the PSA to control door closure and make announcements whilst patrolling the train. With the absence of a driver’s position, the fully glazed car ends provide a forward and rear view for passengers. The top speed is 100 kilometres per hour (62 mph).
Despite having high floors and being automated, the cars are derived from a German light-rail design intended for street running. All cars look similar but there have been several different types, some still in service, others sold to other operators. B2007 units were purchased from Bombardier in 2005 and delivered between 2007 and 2010.
Future rolling stock
In 2017, TfL opened bidding for new trains to run on the DLR. It will order 43 new trains, which will increase capacity by 30% when they are introduced in 2022. The contract will be awarded in 2018 and the trains will feature charging points and air-conditioning. On 12 June 2019, it was announced CAF have been successful in their bid and have been awarded the contract to provide the new trains, entering service in 2023.
There are operating and maintenance depots at Poplar, now secondary to the larger site at Beckton, built on the site of the Beckton Gas Works in 1996 and accessed via a spur at Gallions Reach. Rolling stock is kept at both locations, which have maintenance workshops and extensive open-air carriage sidings. The Poplar depot, which is also the operating headquarters of Docklands Light Railway Ltd, Keolis Amey Docklands Ltd and the Emirates Air-Line cable car, houses diesel locomotives used for track maintenance. Poplar depot is alongside the north side of the Stratford line east of the station, and Beckton depot is to the east of the line on a long spur north-east of Gallions Reach. Beckton Depot has the only level crossing on DLR. It is an AHB type and the barriers are down unless a user wants to cross, much like Appleford but AHB styled.
One of the diesel locos stabled at Poplar is 1979 GEC Traction 0-4-0, one of three built for Shotton Steelworks. Since they were used at the steelworks, one has been scrapped, one has recently been acquired by the Yorkshire Wolds Railway and the third is now at Poplar named "Kevin Keaney". Its original nickname was "Sooty" because of the amount of exhaust this old engine produced.
Originally the DLR used signalling based on a fixed-block technology developed by GEC-General Signal and General Railway Signal. This was replaced in 1994 with a moving-block TBTC (Transmission Based Train Control) system developed by Alcatel, called SelTrac. The SelTrac system was bought by Thales in 2007 and updates are provided by Thales Rail Signalling Solutions. The same technology is used by rapid transit systems including Vancouver’s SkyTrain, Toronto’s SRT, the San Francisco Municipal Railway and Hong Kong’s MTR. The SelTrac S40 system has also been adopted by the London Underground Jubilee line and Northern line. Transmissions occur via an inductive loop cable between each train’s Vehicle On-Board Controller (VOBC) and the control centre (VCC, SMC) at Beckton. If this link is broken and communication is lost between the VOBC and VCC, SMC, the train stops until it is authorised to move again. If the whole system fails the train can run in restricted manual at 19 kilometres per hour (12 mph) for safety until the system is restored and communication is re-established. Emergency brakes can be applied if the train breaks the speed limit during manual control or overshoots a fixed stopping point, or if it leaves the station when the route has not been set.
Ownership and structure
DLR was a wholly owned subsidiary of London Regional Transport until 1992 when it was transferred to the London Docklands Development Corporation.
The infrastructure is owned by Docklands Light Railway Ltd, part of the London Rail division of Transport for London (TfL), which also manages London Overground, London Trams, Emirates Air Line and Crossrail.
The first franchise was awarded to Serco Docklands Limited for seven years; operations began in April 1997. A management buyout backed by Serco management later sold its shares to Serco. A two-year extension was granted in 2002.
In February 2005 TfL announced that Balfour Beatty/Keolis, First Carillion, RATP/Transdev and Serco had been shortlisted to operate the franchise, and in November 2005 TfL announced that Serco had retained the franchise for seven years from May 2006.
The Lewisham, City Airport and Woolwich Arsenal extensions were designed, financed, built and maintained by private companies (concessionnaires): City Greenwich Lewisham (CGL) Rail, City Airport Rail Enterprises (CARE), and Woolwich Arsenal Rail Enterprises (WARE). In 2011, Transport Trading Limited (a subsidiary of TfL) bought out the companies responsible for the City Airport and Woolwich Arsenal extensions, leaving only the Lewisham extension under private ownership.
In July 2012 TfL called for expressions of interest in bidding for the next DLR franchise, and in January 2013 Serco’s contract was extended until September 2014.
In April 2013 TfL announced that Go-Ahead/Colas Rail, Keolis/Amey, Serco and Stagecoach had been shortlisted to bid for the next franchise. However, on 30 August, just before the bid submission date of 9 September 2013, Go-Ahead/Colas Rail pulled out. The franchise was awarded to Keolis/Amey, with a handover date of 7 December 2014, expiring in April 2021  with an option for extension without going to tender.
Within a year of launch, annual passenger numbers reached 17 million, increasing to 64 million in 2009, and more than 80 million in 2011. The most recent figures show 116.8 million annual passengers in the financial year to 31 March 2020. The first five years had unreliability and operational problems, but the system has since become highly reliable. Research in 2008 showed 87% of the population of North Woolwich were in favour of the DLR.
The Parliamentary Transport Select Committee favourably reviewed light rail in 2005, and due to the success of the DLR, proposals for similar systems elsewhere emerged. The North and West London Light Railway was a plan for an orbital railway serving the other side of London. The DLR has been successful, as have other recent light rail systems, although it was earlier criticised for having been designed with insufficient capacity to meet the demand that quickly arose.
Until 1 July 2013, the only bicycles that were allowed were folding ones. DLR stated that this is because if evacuation is required, they would slow down the process. DLR cars, especially older rolling stock, were not designed with bicycles in mind – if they were allowed, they might obstruct doors and emergency exits. Since January 2014 full-size bicycles have been allowed on DLR trains at off-peak hours and weekends (except Bank Station, where bicycles are not permitted for safety reasons).
The key available trends in recent years for the Docklands Light Railway are (years ending 31 March):
Passenger revenue[a] (£m)64.074.988.8102.8122.1130.0146.2158.4166.5168.3171.6168.8
‘Profit’ ("Financial assistance given")[b] (£m)−43.1−42.9
Number of passengers (m)67.869.478.386.1100.0101.6110.2116.9122.3119.6121.8116.8
Number of trains (at year end)110149149149149149149149149149149149
Notes/sources   As defined in the DfT Light Rail and Tram Survey (Table LRT0301a) As defined in TfL’s Annual Report and Statement of Accounts
Status – As of December 2020, technical and feasibility work underway by Transport for London Main article: Docklands Light Railway extension to Thamesmead
Mooted throughout the 2010s, an extension across the River Thames to Thamesmead was first proposed in November 2019 as part of the Thamesmead and Abbey Wood OAPF (Opportunity Area Planning Framework). Technical and feasibility work began in late 2020, following adoption of the OAPF. Stations would be located at Beckton Riverside and Thamesmead.
Thames Wharf station
Main article: Thames Wharf DLR station
Status – As of April 2020, proposed as part of Thameside West development  As part of the construction of the London City Airport extension in the mid 2000s, a gap in the viaduct due west of the western end of Royal Victoria Dock, between Canning Town and West Silvertown stations – was passively safeguarded for a future station when development came forward on the brownfield and industrial sites. The potential of development on the land was on hold for until the late 2010s, as the area was being safeguarded for the route of the Silvertown Tunnel, a new Thames river crossing currently under construction on the site.
As part of the 2018 budget, the Chancellor announced funding for the DLR to support development in the Royal Docks. Following completion of the Silvertown Tunnel in the mid 2020s, around 5,000 homes will be built on the site, and a new DLR station would be constructed.
Tower Gateway station to Tower Hill interchange
Status – long term aspiration (2050)
In July 2014, a Transport Supporting Paper from the London Infrastructure Plan 2050 by the Mayor of London considered the closure of Tower Gateway DLR station and the branch serving it, with a replacement interchange being provided via new platforms at Tower Hill Underground station. This would increase train frequencies to Bank by approximately 30%, thereby unlocking more capacity on the Bank branch.[note 1] However, this document notes that this would be a long term aspiration – around 2050.
Extensions cancelled or not progressed
Dagenham Dock extension
Main article: Docklands Light Railway extension to Dagenham Dock
Status – Cancelled 2008 The extension to Dagenham Dock in East London, via the Barking Riverside development was first proposed in 2003, and was anticipated that the project could be completed and open for use by 2017, at a cost of around £750m. In November 2008, the Mayor of London Boris Johnson announced that due to financial constraints the extension, along with a number of other transport projects, had been cancelled. The Barking Riverside development will now be served by an extension of the London Overground to a new station at Barking Riverside, costing around £260m.
Victoria/Charing Cross extensions
Docklands Light Railway flag box
Status – Proposed 2006
In February 2006 a proposal to extend the DLR to Charing Cross station from Bank DLR branch was revealed. The idea originates from a DLR "Horizon Study".
While not confirmed, it is probable that the Charing Cross scheme would use the overrun tunnels between Charing Cross Jubilee platforms and slightly west of Aldwych. These tunnels were intended to be incorporated into the abandoned Phase 2 of the Fleet Line (Phase 1 became the original Jubilee line, prior to the Jubilee line Extension). However they would need enlargement because DLR gauge is larger than tube gauge and current safety regulations would require an emergency walkway in the tunnel.
Two reasons driving the proposal are capacity problems at Bank, having just one interchange between the DLR and the central portion of Underground, and the difficult journeys faced by passengers from Kent and South Coast between their rail termini and the DLR. Intermediate stations would be at City Thameslink/Ludgate Circus and Aldwych, which was intended for future connection with the proposed but now abandoned Cross River Tram.
Euston/St Pancras extension
Status – Proposed
In 2011, strategy documents proposed a DLR extension to Euston and St Pancras. Transport for London have considered driving a line from City Thameslink via Holborn north to the rail termini. The main benefit of such an extension would be to broaden the available direct transport links to the Canary Wharf site. It would create a new artery in central London and help relieve the Northern and Circle lines and provide another metro line to serve the High Speed line into Euston.
Lewisham to Catford/Lewisham to Beckenham Junction extension
Status – Proposed in 2006
This possible extension was considered during the latest Horizon Study. The route would follow the Southeastern line and terminate between Catford and Catford Bridge stations. It has been seen as attractive to the district, as has the current terminus at Lewisham, built in an earlier extension. A map published in 2010 by Transport for London suggests that a further extension from Catford to Forest Hill has also been considered.
However, early plans showed problems due to Lewisham station being only marginally lower than the busy A20 road, which impedes any extension. The plan is however being revised. When the Lewisham extension was first completed there were proposals to continue further to Beckenham to link it up with the Tramlink system. However, the way in which Lewisham station was built impedes this possible extension and it would prove costly to redevelop.
Lewisham to Bromley North extension
Status – Proposed in 2012
Another proposal is to Bromley North by taking over the Bromley North Line, a short National Rail branch line which has no direct services into Central London. The scheme being considered by Transport for London and the London Borough of Bromley would convert the branch line to DLR operation. Although Lewisham Council planned to re-route the A20 road and redevelop the area south of Lewisham DLR station, the plans published in 2012 have no safeguarded route for an extension, making one unlikely.
Accidents and incidents
The original Island Gardens DLR station at the end of a viaduct
On 10 March 1987, before the system opened, a test train crashed through buffer stops at the original high-level Island Gardens terminus and was left hanging from the end of the elevated track. The accident was caused by unauthorised tests being run before the correct installation of the wayside safety system had been verified; an omission in the wayside system allowed the train to travel too fast on the approach to the terminus. The train was being driven manually at the time. On 22 April 1991, two trains collided at a junction on the West India Quay bridge during morning rush hour, requiring a shutdown of the system and evacuation of passengers by ladder. One train was travelling automatically; the other was under manual control. On 9 February 1996, the Provisional IRA blew up a lorry under a bridge near South Quay, killing two people and injuring many others. This 1996 bombing caused £85 million of damage and marked an end to an IRA ceasefire in force at the time. Significant disruption was caused and a train was stranded at Island Gardens, unable to move until the track was rebuilt.
The DLR appears in the video to Sean Paul and Clean Bandit’s single "Rockabye". Poplar, Canary Wharf and Heron Quays stations appear, interspersed with scenes of New York in winter, in the official video for the single "Trains and Winter Rains" by Enya, released in 2008.
Woolwich Arsenal plays an underground station in Athens in Jason Bourne.
The DLR also appears in the 2007 film 28 Weeks Later.
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